Stereoselective disposition and pharmacologic activity of propafenone enantiomers.
Propafenone is an antiarrhythmic drug that produces a variable degree of beta-blockade in humans and is administered as a racemate. To examine the relative contribution of the individual enantiomers to pharmacologic effects seen during treatment with propafenone, we assessed the steady-state plasma concentrations of (+)-S-propafenone and (-)-R-propafenone in seven patients who were on long-term oral therapy, and we evaluated the electrophysiologic and beta-blocking properties of both enantiomers in vitro. The metabolism of propafenone is known to be polymorphic and to cosegregate with that of debrisoquine-4-hydroxylation. Among five patients with the extensive metabolizer phenotype (EM), the ratio of the area under the plasma concentration-time curve of (+)-S-propafenone to (-)-R-propafenone was 1.73 +/- 0.15 (mean +/- SD). In the other two patients, who had the poor metabolizer phenotype (PM), the concentrations of both enantiomers were elevated but the S/R ratios were similar to those seen in patients with EM. In canine cardiac Purkinje fibers, both enantiomers produced similar frequency-dependent depression of maximum upstroke of phase 0. In contrast, the affinity of the human lymphocyte beta 2-adrenoceptor was approximately 100-fold greater for (+)-S-propafenone (Ki, 7.2 +/- 2.9 nM) than for the (-)-R-enantiomer (Ki, 571 +/- 141 nM). We conclude that during long-term oral therapy, propafenone undergoes stereoselective disposition in patients with either EM or PM. beta-Blockade during propafenone therapy is likely related to accumulation of (+)-S-propafenone.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
- Copyright © 1989 by American Heart Association