Activation mapping of reentry around an anatomic barrier in the canine atrium. Observations during entrainment and termination.
We determined total right atrial activation sequences during entrainment and termination of flutter induced in dogs with a surgically induced atrial lesion. This type of atrial flutter is due to circus movement of an impulse around the tricuspid valve orifice. We recorded simultaneously from 96 bipolar intracavity electrodes in the right atrium of the isolated, perfused heart. By constructing isochronal maps, we demonstrated the pattern of atrial activation during atrial pacing protocols that either entrained or entrained and then terminated the reentrant rhythm. We show that during pacing the antidromic wavefront from the paced impulse (An) collides with the orthodromic wavefront from the previous paced impulse (On-1). During entrainment, the site of collision of the orthodromic and antidromic wavefronts was constant during pacing at a fixed rate but shifted in the antidromic direction as the pacing rate increased. Furthermore, the last paced beat was entrained only up to the site of collision of the previous paced beat. During one period of entrainment, termination of the reentrant arrhythmia occurred because On-1 blocked in the reentrant pathway due to refractory tissue left by On-2. However, subsequent An did not collide directly with On as was expected, but rather On blocked by an interaction with tissue left refractory by An. Because On was blocked, no reentry occurred when pacing ended.
- Copyright © 1989 by American Heart Association