New catheter technique for recording left free-wall accessory atrioventricular pathway activation. Identification of pathway fiber orientation.
The ability to record accessory atrioventricular (AV) pathway activation consistently may be uniquely beneficial in improving pathway localization, identifying anatomic relations, and providing insight into unusual conduction properties. For the purpose of recording left AV accessory pathway activation, an electrode catheter was specially designed for use in the coronary sinus. The orthogonal catheter has three sets of four electrodes spaced evenly around the circumference. Electrograms were recorded at low gain (less than 1 cm/mV) between adjacent electrodes on the same set (interelectrode distance, 1.5 mm, center to center). This provides a recording dipole perpendicular to the atrioventricular groove to enhance recording of accessory pathway activation while minimizing overlapping atrial or ventricular potentials. The orthogonal electrode catheter was used in the electrophysiological study of 48 consecutive patients with 59 left AV accessory pathways. The catheter could be advanced along the coronary sinus beyond the site of earliest retrograde atrial activation in 49 of the 59 accessory pathways. Activation potentials were recorded from 45 of the 49 (92%) accessory pathways accessible to the catheter (5 of 5 anterior, 8 of 8 anterolateral, 15 of 16 lateral, 5 of 5 posterolateral, 5 of 5 posterior, and 7 of 10 posteroseptal). Accessory pathway potentials were validated by dissociating them from both atrial and ventricular activation by programmed-stimulation techniques. During surgery, accessory pathway potentials were identified from orthogonal catheter electrodes in the coronary sinus in 14 of 16 accessory pathways (12 patients). Epicardial mapping confirmed the location of the accessory pathway, and direct pressure over the orthogonal catheter electrode that recorded the accessory pathway potential resulted in transient conduction block in nine of the 14 accessory pathways. Orthogonal electrode maps of the coronary sinus identified an oblique course in 39 of 45 recorded accessory pathways. Thirty-two of 38 left free-wall accessory pathways were oriented with atrial insertion 4-30 mm (median, 14 mm) proximal (posterior) to the ventricular insertion. In the remaining six free-wall accessory pathways, the lateral excursion could not be determined because either only the atrial end of the accessory pathway was recorded or activation of multiple pathway fibers prevented tracking of individual strands. The seven recorded posteroseptal pathways exhibited accessory pathway potentials throughout an 8-18-mm (median, 10 mm) length of the proximal coronary sinus, but fiber orientation was difficult to determine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
- Copyright © 1988 by American Heart Association