Short- and long-term effects of transcatheter ablation of the coronary sinus by radiofrequency energy.
Catheter ablation of left-sided atrioventricular accessory pathways through the coronary sinus by direct-current shock may be complicated by rupture and thrombosis of the coronary sinus and injury to the coronary arteries. This study examined short and long-term effects of radiofrequency catheter ablation of the coronary sinus in 20 closed-chest dogs to determine whether this technique is feasible for potential interruption of left-sided accessory pathways. Single-pulsed radiofrequency energy (750 kHz, 85-293 J) was delivered to three sites in the distal and middle coronary sinus between the distal (1) or the proximal electrodes (2 or 3) of a standard 6 French quadripolar catheter and a chest-wall patch electrode. Single-pulsed radiofrequency energy (78-293 J) was also applied to two sites near the ostium of the coronary sinus with the proximal (4) or the distal (1) electrode of the same catheter. Coronary artery and levophase coronary sinus angiograms obtained before and immediately after ablation, as well as before killing, showed intact vascular structures in all dogs. Right atrial, pulmonary arterial, and aortic pressures measured in three dogs did not change significantly at the time of energy delivery. No significant changes were found in atrioventricular nodal refractoriness and conduction. None of the dogs had significant rhythm disturbances during and after ablation as evaluated by ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring and periodic rhythm strips at follow-up. Ten dogs were killed 1-7 days after ablation, three dogs were killed at 4 weeks, three dogs at 6 weeks, two dogs at 8 weeks, and two dogs at 12 weeks. Discrete lesions ranging in size from 3 x 3 to 8 x 10 mm2 in surface area and 0.5-4.5 mm in depth were found in the coronary sinus with most of the lesions extending to the left atrial and left ventricular myocardium. There was neither rupture of the coronary sinus nor occlusion of the coronary arteries. Mural thrombus was found in the coronary sinus on five acute lesions in two dogs, but none was noted on the chronic lesions, which was characterized by chronic granulation tissue and fibrosis. Two dogs in the study during chronic conditions had damage to branches of the underlying coronary artery that showed necrotizing arteritis and arterial sclerosis. Conduction system studies in four dogs showed some chronic inflammatory and fibrotic changes. Similar discrete lesions were found in situ in the coronary sinus of four postmortem human hearts with radiofrequency catheter ablation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
- Copyright © 1988 by American Heart Association