Early diastolic filling dynamics during experimental mitral regurgitation in the conscious dog.
Diastolic flow into the left ventricle during mitral regurgitation must increase as total stroke volume increases in response to the volume overload. The mechanisms that allow augmented diastolic filling are not fully defined. Accordingly, the left ventricle of five dogs was instrumented with a micromanometer and sonomicrometers and studied during the conscious state before (control) and after the creation of significant mitral regurgitation. Serial measurements were made at control and up to 4 weeks after the creation of the volume overload. Heart rate, peak systolic wall stress, and peak positive dP/dt showed no significant changes between control and subsequent observations. End-diastolic volume and total stroke volume progressively and significantly increased during the 4-week course. When compared with the control state (51 +/- 4, mean +/- SD), the filling fraction during the first 40% of diastolic time was increased at 4 days (67 +/- 10%, p less than 0.001), 2 weeks (72 +/- 6%, p less than 0.001), and 4 weeks (76 +/- 10%, p less than 0.001). During the period of adaptation to the volume overload, filling fraction correlated with end-diastolic volume (r = 0.52, p less than 0.02) and total stroke volume (r = 0.80, p less than 0.001). Compared with the control state (0.81 +/- 0.04), eccentricity of the left ventricle at end systole decreased at 4 weeks (0.79 +/- 0.06, p less than 0.05); the absolute change in this ratio during the first 40% of diastolic time was significantly augmented at 2 weeks (0.09 +/- 0.02, p less than 0.05) and 4 weeks (0.11 +/- 0.04, p less than 0.005) compared with control (0.05 +/- 0.02). Ventricular elastance (pressure/volume) at end systole (minimum volume) was 1.70 +/- 0.50 mm Hg/ml at control, 1.09 +/- 0.46 at 4 days (p less than 0.05), 0.96 +/- 0.42 at 2 weeks (p less than 0.01), and 0.99 +/- 0.22 at 4 weeks (p less than 0.01). Moreover, the elastance change during the rapid-filling phase was significantly diminished after creation of mitral regurgitation. Thus, during the volume overload of mitral regurgitation, the left ventricle accommodates a higher percentage of its total stroke volume during early diastole; this adaptation can be correlated with augmented systolic shortening, and thereby with increased restorative forces or elastic recoil, and with reduced chamber elastance and eccentricity during the early part of diastole. Other potential mechanisms include altered systolic and relaxation loading, augmented elastic recoil of the left atrium, left atrium and left ventricular pressure gradient, accelerated myocardial inactivation, and increased adrenergic stimulation.
- Copyright © 1988 by American Heart Association