Balloon dilation of congenital aortic valve stenosis. Results and influence of technical and morphological features on outcome.
We evaluated dilation technique (n = 80) and aortic valve morphology by two-dimensional echocardiography (n = 58) in patients with congenital aortic valve stenosis to determine their influence on outcome. Patients' age (9 +/- 9 years; range, 1 day-39 years) and a history of surgical valvotomy did not influence outcome. The number of dilating balloons (one vs. two) and balloon: annulus ratio based on the largest balloon used in each case (97 +/- 12%; range, 71-133%) did not demonstrably influence the percent reduction in valvar gradient. In contrast, with a balloon: annulus ratio greater than 100%, the incidence (26%) of significant, dilation-induced aortic regurgitation was higher than occurred when the ratio was equal to or less than 100% (11%). Fifty bicommissural and eight unicommissural valves were identified echocardiographically. Relief of obstruction was associated with apparent commissural division in 24 of 32 patients with suitable postdilation studies. The sites of fusion and stenosis relief did not influence percent reduction in valvar gradient. Substantial increases in aortic regurgitation (greater than three of five grades) occurred in three of eight unicommissural and one of 50 bicommissural valves. The presence of a thick valve was associated with a slightly lower gradient reduction (53 +/- 12%) than thin and pliant valves (63 +/- 24%) (p greater than 0.05). Unlike all other congenital lesions we have studied, dilation technique and balloon size appeared to have a lesser influence on percent reduction in valvar gradient in congenital aortic stenosis, although balloon: annulus ratio influences the increase in aortic regurgitation. Valve morphology appears to assist with predicting the outcome of dilation.
- Copyright © 1988 by American Heart Association