A fourth criterion for transient entrainment: the electrogram equivalent of progressive fusion.
Prior data pertaining to transient entrainment and associated phenomena have been best explained by pacing capture of a reentrant circuit. On this basis, we hypothesized that rapid pacing from a single site of two different constant pacing rates could constantly capture an appropriately selected bipolar electrogram recording site from one direction with a constant stimulus-to-electrogram interval during pacing at one rate, yet be constantly captured from another direction with a different constant stimulus-to-electrogram interval when pacing at a different constant pacing rate. To test this hypothesis, we studied a group of patients, each with a representative tachycardia (ventricular tachycardia, circus-movement tachycardia involving an atrioventricular bypass pathway, atrial tachycardia, and atrial flutter). For each tachycardia, pacing was performed from a single site for at least two different constant rates faster than the spontaneous rate of the tachycardia. We observed in these patients that a local bipolar recording site was constantly captured from different directions at two different pacing rates without interrupting the tachycardia at pacing termination. The evidence that the same site was captured from a different direction at two different pacing rates was supported by demonstrating a change in conduction time to that site associated with a change in the bipolar electrogram morphology at that site when comparing pacing at each rate. The mean conduction time (stimulus-to-recording site electrogram interval) was 319 +/- 69 msec while pacing at a mean cycle length of 265 +/- 50 msec, yet only 81 +/- 38 msec while pacing at a second mean cycle length of 233 +/- 51 msec, a mean change in conduction time of 238 +/- 56 msec. Remarkably, the faster pacing rate resulted in a shorter conduction time. The fact that the same electrode recording site was activated from different directions without interruption of the spontaneous tachycardia at pacing termination is difficult to explain on any mechanistic basis other than reentry. Also, these changes in conduction time and electrogram morphology occurred in parallel with the demonstration of progressive fusion beats on the electrocardiogram, the latter being an established criterion for transient entrainment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
- Copyright © 1988 by American Heart Association