Reentrant ventricular rhythms in the late myocardial infarction period: prevention of reentry by dual stimulation during basic rhythm.
Stimulation at two ventricular sites during basic rhythm as a means of preventing the induction of ventricular arrhythmias in the postinfarction heart was investigated. Isochronal maps of ventricular epicardial activation from dogs were analyzed 4 days after ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Activation patterns were obtained by use of a computerized data acquisition system recording from 62 sites. Effective refractoriness and conduction time during basic paced rhythm (S1) for each site were summed to construct isochronal maps of recovery time. The patterns of recovery time on the heart were eccentrically layered, with a narrow zone of differentially prolonged recovery time along one border of the infarct. The formation of an arc of functional conduction block after premature stimulation (S2) was correlated with regions of differentially prolonged recovery time (59 +/- 30 msec, mean +/- SD) between recording sites spaced 5 to 10 mm apart. The recovery time difference between sites that did not block (17 +/- 14 msec) was significantly shorter. The spatial distribution of recovery time on the heart could be modified by application of stimuli at two sites during the basic rhythm. Reentry was prevented by appropriate placement of the secondary site in the ischemic zone and the temporal sequencing of the paired stimuli. Stimulation at the secondary site "peeled back" refractoriness in the ischemic zone. Prevention of reentry was a result of either: (1) a shift in the arc of conduction block toward the ischemic zone, (2) a reduction in the extent of the continuous arc, (3) early activation of regions distal to the arc, or (4) a combination of the above. In two dogs, the arc of block was abolished entirely after dual stimulation. This report illustrates the criteria for effective prevention of reentry, applied to a well-described verifiable model of reentrant activation.
- Copyright © 1988 by American Heart Association