Atrial natriuretic peptide in congestive heart failure in the dog: plasma levels, cyclic guanosine monophosphate, ultrastructure of atrial myoendocrine cells, and hemodynamic, hormonal, and renal effects.
In an animal preparation of congestive heart failure in the dog, during the development of cardiac failure due to rapid right ventricular pacing we observed significant decreases in cardiac output and arterial pressure and increases in pulmonary arterial and right atrial pressure. We also observed a related increase in right atrial pressure and increases in plasma levels of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (c-GMP). Ultrastructure changes in the atrial myoendocrine cells indicated extreme stimulation of the secretory apparatus of ANP. The response of hemodynamic, renal, and hormonal variables was investigated after incremental infusions (0.01, 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, and 0.06 microgram/kg/min) of exogenous ANP. In healthy animals ANP significantly decreased mean arterial pressure, cardiac output, stroke volume, and right atrial pressure without changing heart rate or peripheral vascular resistance. As expected, we found a striking increase in urine flow and urinary excretion of sodium, chloride, magnesium and calcium and a smaller increase in potassium excretion. ANP suppressed renin secretion, and increased renal plasma flow, glomerular filtration rate, and filtration fraction. In dogs with heart failure ANP caused a small reduction in mean arterial pressure. No effect was seen on other hemodynamic variables or plasma renin concentration. The excretory effects on the kidneys were completely absent, and smaller increases in glomerular filtration rate and filtration fraction were observed. We found no difference between healthy dogs and animals with heart failure with respect to the secretion of c-GMP during ANP infusions in relation to the plasma levels of ANP. This suggests an intracellular defect that prevents the mediation of the hormonal signal into biological action in the presence of heart failure.
- Copyright © 1988 by American Heart Association