Effects of pacing-induced ischemia on early left ventricular filling and regional myocardial dynamics and their modification by nifedipine.
The effect of pacing-induced ischemia on early left ventricular filling and regional myocardial lengthening was studied in 11 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and six control patients with normal coronary arteriograms. All of the 11 patients with CAD developed typical anginal pain during pacing tachycardia, and in the postpacing beat, the left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) rose from 13 +/- 4 to 26 +/- 4 mm Hg (mean +/- SD, p less than .01), the relaxation time constant increased from 43 +/- 9 to 59 +/- 7 msec (p less than .01), and the ejection fraction diminished from 62.1 +/- 6.7 to 51.6 +/- 10.6% (p less than .01). However, the peak rate of early left ventricular filling (LVPF) obtained from frame-by-frame analysis of left ventriculograms and the LVPF normalized for the stroke volume and for the end-diastolic volume did not change significantly. In the ischemic segment, the peak rate of lengthening (PL) decreased by 45% with ischemia, and the PL normalized for the end-diastolic segment length decreased by 42%. However, the PL normalized for the extent of systolic shortening did not change. In the control segment there was a tendency for these three variables to increase, but the changes were not statistically significant. The time difference from the PL to the LVPF increased significantly in the ischemic segment (31 +/- 28 vs 75 +/- 48 msec, p less than .05). Although the LVEDP rose slightly but significantly from 9 +/- 3 to 12 +/- 5 mm Hg (p less than .05) in the control patients in the postpacing beat, the other global hemodynamic variables and the variables of regional myocardial dynamics did not change. The administration of nifedipine in six patients with CAD resulted in the disappearance or diminution of anginal pain even with the same duration and rate of pacing and was associated with restoration of global systolic function and regional myocardial shortening and lengthening in the ischemic segment. In the control segment, the three variables of segmental lengthening increased with administration of nifedipine. Thus, the segmental myocardial lengthening rate decreased with ischemia due to a decrease in segmental shortening and impairment of myocardial distensibility. The LVPF did not decrease with ischemia despite impairment in isovolumetric relaxation, accentuation of asynchrony in left ventricular filling, and a decrease in the PL in the ischemic segment because of an increase in the PL in the nonischemic segment secondary to an increase in left ventricular filling pressure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
- Copyright © 1987 by American Heart Association