Causes of failure and pathologic findings in surgically removed Ionescu-Shiley standard bovine pericardial heart valve bioprostheses: emphasis on progressive structural deterioration.
Twenty-three Ionescu-Shiley standard bovine pericardial bioprostheses (15 aortic, seven mitral, and one tricuspid) removed at surgery from 21 adults, 28 to 75 years old (mean 55 at reoperation), were examined after functioning for as long as 84 months (mean 26). Reoperation was necessitated by active or healed endocarditis (10 valves), paravalvular leak (three), structural deterioration (eight), and other causes (two). Valves with degenerative dysfunction functioned 32 to 84 months (mean 68). Six had intrinsic cuspal calcification, one with stenosis, and there was regurgitation through secondary cuspal defects in five. Six valves had cuspal defects clearly associated with commissural sutures ("alignment stitches") unique to this valve design. One valve had a large basal cuspal tear. Other prominent pathologic features included gross cuspal thickening and mild stretching and microscopic deep fluid insudation, separation of collagen bundles, and mononuclear inflammation. Thus, structural disruption due to calcific tissue degeneration and design-related cuspal tears or commissural perforations are the predominant modes of degenerative failure of Ionescu-Shiley standard bovine pericardial valves.
- Copyright © 1987 by American Heart Association