Cardiovascular adaptations to intense swim training in sedentary middle-aged men and women.
Central and peripheral cardiovascular adaptations to 12 weeks of intense swim training were characterized in 12 previously sedentary middle-aged men and women. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2) during upright bicycle exercise improved from 29.2 +/- 5.6 to 34.7 +/- 6.7 ml/kg/min (mean +/- SD, p less than .01) because of similar increases in peak cardiac output (CO) and calculated arteriovenous oxygen difference (both p = .02). Peak supine VO2 was 10% higher after training (p less than .005) solely because of enhanced CO (p = .005). Peak heart rate decreased in both postures; therefore stroke volume at peak exercise was greater by 10% and 18% in the upright and supine postures, respectively (p = .05 and p = .005). There was an identical 18% rise (p = .01) in peak supine left ventricular end-diastolic volume index by radionuclide ventriculography but no change in left ventricular ejection fraction or end-systolic volume index (ESVI). Peak systolic blood pressure (SBP) was unchanged in the upright posture but was 8% higher (p = .002) during recumbency despite a similar total peripheral resistance and SBP/ESVI ratio. Maximal calf conductance (Gmax), assessed separately by venous occlusion plethysmography after local ischemic exercise to fatigue, was augmented 20% (p less than .02) by training, resulting in an 18% greater hyperemic blood flow (p = .05). Peak VO2, CO, and Gmax were unchanged in five nonexercising control subjects. We conclude that in middle-aged humans, intense swim training for 12 weeks produces adaptations that include a greater capacity for vasodilatation in skeletal muscle and an enhanced cardiac pump capacity.
- Copyright © 1987 by American Heart Association