Pharmacologic conversion and suppression of experimental canine atrial flutter: differing effects of d-sotalol, quinidine, and lidocaine and significance of changes in refractoriness and conduction.
The electrophysiologic determinants of conversion and the prevention of atrial flutter are poorly defined. This issue was therefore investigated by evaluating the effects of the new class III antiarrhythmic drug d-sotalol and the class I antiarrhythmic drugs quinidine and lidocaine. Atrial flutter was reproducibly induced in the open-chest anesthetized dog with intercaval crush and rapid atrial pacing. In this preparation, intravenous d-sotalol restored sinus rhythm in 14 of 15 (93%) dogs, whereas quinidine converted nine of 15 (60%) and lidocaine two of 10 (20%). d-Sotalol prevented reinduction in eight (53%), whereas quinidine was effective in four (27%) and lidocaine in none (0%). In the atria, d-sotalol induced significant increases in effective refractory period (+32%; p less than .01), functional refractory period (+30%; p less than .01), conduction time at an atrial paced cycle length of 150 msec (+9%; p less than .05), and atrial flutter cycle length (+8%; p less than .01). Quinidine increased effective refractory period (+40%; p less than .01), functional refractory period (+27%; p less than .01), conduction time at sinus cycle length (+13%; p less than .01), conduction time at an atrial paced cycle length of 150 msec (+18%; p less than .01), and atrial flutter cycle length (+31%; p less than .01). Lidocaine decreased functional refractory period (-6%; p less than .05) while lengthening the atrial flutter cycle length (+13%; p less than .05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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