Effects of varying electrode configuration with catheter-mediated defibrillator pulses at the coronary sinus orifice in dogs.
We compared two methods of delivering single damped sine-wave defibrillator pulses to the coronary sinus orifice in 20 dogs. Ten dogs had "unipolar" (coronary sinus to precordial disc) and 10 had "bipolar" (coronary sinus proximal to coronary sinus distal electrode) discharges. Delivered voltage, current, and energy were recorded during each pulse. Electrophysiologic testing was done before and 4 weeks after the procedure. Histologic examination of the atrioventricular groove was done at 1 mm serial sections. For the unipolar configuration a 200 J defibrillator pulse resulted in a peak voltage of 3370 +/- 125 V, a peak current of 21 +/- 4 A, and a delivered energy of 253 +/- 29 J as compared with 3010 +/- 99 V, 70 +/- 4 A, and 144 +/- 18 J, respectively, for the bipolar configuration (p less than .001). Three dogs (two with bipolar, one with unipolar pulses) had gross coronary sinus rupture and died from acute pericardial tamponade. In addition, irrespective of electrode configuration, all dogs showed microscopic rupture of the coronary sinus internal elastic membrane. Transmural atrial scarring occurred in all 10 dogs that received a unipolar pulse but in only two dogs that received a bipolar pulse (p = .0004). Unlike the atrium, injury to the left ventricle was limited in both groups. Similarly, injury to the periannular myocardium was inconsistent and not transmural in either group. No significant electrophysiologic changes were observed. With the present technique, unipolar rather than bipolar catheter-mediated defibrillator pulses result in transmural atrial injury that might prevent accessory pathway conduction. Regardless of electrode configuration, high-energy defibrillator pulses consistently cause some degree of coronary sinus rupture, most likely related to a barotraumatic mechanism.
- Copyright © 1986 by American Heart Association