Intraoperative evaluation of coronary artery bypass graft anastomoses with high-frequency epicardial echocardiography: experimental validation and initial patient studies.
There is currently no accepted approach for intraoperative evaluation of the technical adequacy of coronary artery bypass graft anastomoses. High-frequency epicardial echocardiography performed intraoperatively could assess coronary artery bypass graft anastomoses by providing on-line short-axis (cross-sectional) and longitudinal two-dimensional images of the vessels. To validate measurements of anastomoses with high-frequency epicardial echocardiography, luminal diameter determined by high-frequency epicardial echocardiography was compared with that determined histologically after perfusion fixation in 12 dogs studied after coronary artery bypass grafting. Technical errors were deliberately created in some grafts. The results of these animal validation studies showed that maximum luminal diameter of the anastomosis by high-frequency epicardial echocardiography correlated well with histologic measurements (r = .92; high-frequency epicardial echocardiography = 0.8 histology + 0.3). All deliberately created technical errors were detected by an independent observer using high-frequency epicardial echocardiography. After completion of the animal studies, we demonstrated the clinical applicability of this approach in 12 patients. Fifteen coronary artery bypass graft anastomoses were examined intraoperatively with high-frequency epicardial echocardiography. The measured maximum luminal diameter of the anastomosis was greater than the maximum luminal diameter of the native artery, as expected, in all end-to-side anastomoses. However, the maximum luminal diameter of the side-to-side anastomoses was equal to or slightly less than that of the native artery. In this initial patient group, minor technical errors were noted in two of 15 graft anastomoses. In conclusion, high-frequency epicardial echocardiography can accurately measure coronary arterial bypass graft anastomoses and has potential for intraoperative detection of technical errors and inadequacies.
- Copyright © 1986 by American Heart Association