Effects of intravascular volume state on the value of pulsus paradoxus and right ventricular diastolic collapse in predicting cardiac tamponade.
Both pulsus paradoxus and right ventricular diastolic collapse detected by two-dimensional echocardiography are noninvasive markers of impaired cardiac function in cardiac tamponade, yet the reliability of each may vary with the patient's state of hydration. To examine the relative value of these noninvasive markers at various states of hydration, we studied five chronically prepared, conscious mongrel dogs during 37 episodes of cardiac tamponade at three different intravascular volumes. We continuously measured cardiac output (electromagnetic flowmeter), aortic blood pressure, right atrial blood pressure, intrapericardial pressure, and respirations. Intravascular volume was varied by adjusting the mean right atrial blood pressure to hypovolemic (-2 to -6 mm Hg), euvolemic (0 to 4 mm Hg), or hypervolemic (6 to 10 mm Hg) levels. The sensitivity and specificity of right ventricular diastolic collapse in predicting increases in intrapericardial pressure remained high at all levels of hydration. Pulsus paradoxus showed good sensitivity and specificity at low intravascular volumes, but both sensitivity and specificity declined at higher intravascular volumes. Thus right ventricular diastolic collapse was more sensitive and more specific than pulsus paradoxus in detecting increases in intrapericardial pressure during euvolemia and hypervolemia whereas the two tests were equally valuable in hypovolemic states.
- Copyright © 1985 by American Heart Association