Locally acting growth factors for vascular smooth muscle cells: endogenous synthesis and release from platelets.
Release of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) from platelets has been postulated to stimulate at least some of the cell proliferation seen at sites of tissue damage, both beneficially (wound healing) and perniciously (during formation of atherosclerotic lesions). Two other growth factors have been localized to the platelet: epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor. These factors may function synergistically with PDGF in promoting smooth muscle cell proliferation in the injured vessel wall. PDGF-like molecules (PDGF-c) that bind to the PDGF receptor and are at least partially recognized by antiserum against PDGF may also be synthesized by vessel wall cells themselves under certain circumstances. Arterial endothelial cells secrete several mitogens, one of which is a PDGF-c. Release is greatly stimulated by exposure of the cells to physiologic concentrations of thrombin. Also, aortic smooth muscle cells from 2-week-old rats secrete mitogenic levels of PDGF-c. In this case, PDGF-c accounts for all the mitogenic activity in conditioned medium (when assayed on 3T3 cells). Smooth muscle cells obtained from adult rat aortae secrete 150-fold less PDGF-c. In a third example, when adult rat carotid arteries are damaged with a balloon catheter, smooth muscle cells migrate into the intima of the artery and proliferate. By 2 weeks, the number of smooth muscle cells in the artery has doubled. When these intimal smooth muscle cells are cultured, they are found to secrete PDGF-c. These findings suggest that activation of endogenous synthesis of PDGF-c may contribute to the smooth muscle cell proliferation seen in response to vascular injury.
- Copyright © 1985 by American Heart Association