Impaired thickening of nonischemic myocardium during acute regional ischemia in the dog.
To study the regional function of nonischemic myocardium after the onset of regional ischemia, graded circumflex coronary arterial stenosis was induced in 18 open-chest anesthetized dogs. Two-dimensional echocardiographic views were obtained at each degree of occlusion in a cross-sectional plane marked by two to three metal beads sewn to the left ventricular epicardium. Percent systolic thickening was measured at 16 equally spaced points around the left ventricle and correlated with microsphere-determined regional myocardial blood flow. Baseline thickening averaged 44.9 +/- 6.4%. During transmural ischemia percent systolic thickening decreased to -16.1 +/- 4.0% in the ischemic region and also decreased in adjacent nonischemic regions (to 2.4 +/- 2.4% in segments closest to the ischemic region [adjacent 1] and to 15.5 +/- 3.9 in segments further away [adjacent 2]), but was unchanged in segments directly opposite the ischemic region (remote region). During subendocardial ischemia, percent systolic thickening fell only in the ischemic and adjacent 1 regions (1.4 +/- 5.2% and 24.9 +/- 5.0%, respectively). Dipyridamole, 0.21 to 0.42 mg/min iv, given to seven dogs during transmural ischemia, caused a three- to fivefold increase in flow to the nonischemic and no change in flow to the ischemic region; function was not altered in any region. Propranolol, 0.1 mg/kg iv, was given to five dogs during transmural ischemia to depress contractility in the remote region. Percent systolic thickening fell in the remote (from 50.0 +/- 7.7% to 34.6 +/- 5.6%), but increased in adjacent 1 (from -0.25 +/- 3.7% to 15.2 +/- 3.9%) and in adjacent 2 (from 17.4 +/- 2.8% to 33.4 +/- 3.9%) regions, and remained unchanged in the ischemic region. We conclude the following: During transmural ischemia percent systolic thickening is markedly impaired in nonischemic myocardium immediately adjacent to the ischemic region, and is impaired to a lesser degree in regions located relatively far from the ischemic border. Dysfunction therefore overestimates the extent of regional ischemia after total coronary occlusion. During subendocardial ischemia function ceases in the ischemic region and functional impairment of nonischemic myocardium is restricted to immediately adjacent regions. Dysfunction of adjacent regions is not caused by "relative ischemia" related to increased local oxygen demands or to a steal phenomenon. Mechanical tethering of nonischemic myocardium adjacent to ischemic regions, secondary to changes in left ventricular shape during contraction, may contribute to the impairment of systolic thickening in adjacent regions during transmural ischemia.
- Copyright © 1985 by American Heart Association