Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: evaluation by noninvasive and invasive techniques in 23 patients.
Over a 3 year period we evaluated 23 patients (16 men, seven women) with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy by noninvasive and invasive methods. Sixteen patients had chest pain. In 17, results of cardiovascular examination were normal. The electrocardiogram showed precordial inverted T waves in all patients and these were of mild-to-moderate amplitude (less than 10 mm) in 18 and giant (greater than 10 mm) in five. M mode echocardiography revealed a typical pattern of contraction and relaxation in the apical region of the left ventricle that was associated with significant hypertrophy. These findings were confirmed by two-dimensional echocardiography. Systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve was not observed nor was there any evidence of obstruction of the left ventricular outflow tract. Results of Doppler echocardiographic study of the mitral and aortic flow were normal in all patients but one who had mild mitral insufficiency. Radionuclide studies of 14 patients revealed a mean left ventricular ejection fraction of 66 +/- 6% (range 55% to 79%), with normal left ventricular contraction in all patients but two with apical hypokinesis. In all six patients who underwent catheterization a characteristic appearance of the left ventricle at end-systole as well as abnormal end-diastolic contour were noted on the left ventricular angiogram, but the "ace of spades" configuration was seen in only one. We conclude that the 23 patients studied form a homogeneous group of individuals with nonobstructive apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, which differs in many respects from cardiomyopathies reported by other investigators.
- Copyright © 1985 by American Heart Association