Effects of a single bolus of urokinase in patients with life-threatening pulmonary emboli: a descriptive trial.
To evaluate hemodynamic, angiographic, and biological effects of a single bolus of urokinase, an open descriptive trial was conducted in a homogeneous group of 14 patients with acute life-threatening pulmonary emboli and without prior cardiopulmonary disease. For every patient the efficacy of the treatment was evaluated by comparing control and posttherapeutic values after the bolus injection of 15,000 IU/kg body weight urokinase (urinary source) administered in 10 min in the right atrium, followed by continuous intravenous full-dose heparin therapy. In two patients clinical status, hemodynamics, vascular obstruction, and biological (fibrinogen and plasminogen levels) parameters remained unchanged. One of these two patients died, making the mortality rate for the whole group 7%. Twelve of 14 patients showed rapid clinical improvement. Evaluation at 12 hr demonstrated significant decreases in pulmonary vascular obstruction (Miller index, 34%), total pulmonary vascular resistances (37%), and fibrinogen and plasminogen levels (41% and 40%, respectively), without any significant change in cardiac index. The hemodynamic sequential measurements performed (1,3, 6, and 12 hr) in seven of the 12 improved patients showed that the greatest percentage of the total hemodynamic improvement occurred within the first 3 hr after bolus administration of urokinase. No severe hemorrhagic complications were observed. Because of its rapid efficacy and its low cost, the bolus technique appeared particularly useful in the treatment of patients with acute life-threatening pulmonary emboli.
- Copyright © 1984 by American Heart Association