Pulsed Doppler echocardiographic determination of stroke volume and cardiac output: clinical validation of two new methods using the apical window.
Two methods of measuring stroke volume and cardiac output with pulsed Doppler two-dimensional echocardiography were developed and validated against the thermodilution technique in 39 patients, 33 of which were in an intensive care unit. With the use of the apical four-chamber view, a mitral inflow method combined the velocity of left ventricular inflow at the mitral anulus with the cross-sectional area of the anulus calculated from its diameter at middiastole (area = pi r2). From the apical five-chamber view a left ventricular outflow method combined the velocity of left ventricular outflow with the cross-sectional area of the aortic anulus calculated from its diameter during early systole (parasternal long-axis view). Measurements with the mitral inflow and left ventricular outflow methods were obtained in 35 of 39 (90%) and 39 of 39 (100%) patients, respectively. Validation of the mitral method excluded patients with mitral regurgitation (n = 11) and validation of the left ventricular outflow method excluded those with aortic regurgitation (n = 4). Good correlations were observed between thermodilution and Doppler measurements of stroke volume and cardiac output for both the mitral anulus method (R = .96 and .87, respectively) and the left ventricular outflow method (R = .95 and .91, respectively). The results of the two methods correlated well with each other in patients without regurgitant valve lesions. A greater interobserver variability was observed with the mitral anulus method, which was related solely to greater variability in measuring the annular diameter.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
- Copyright © 1984 by American Heart Association