Endocardial mapping in humans in sinus rhythm with normal left ventricles: activation patterns and characteristics of electrograms.
Endocardial catheter mapping was performed in 15 patients in sinus rhythm who had no evidence of structural heart disease and normal left ventricles. Mapping was performed with the use of 10 mm interelectrode distance from various left ventricular endocardial sites. In 10 patients a quantitative analysis of electrographic amplitude, duration, and amplitude/duration ratio was performed. The normal left ventricular bipolar electrograms had an amplitude of greater than 3 mV, a duration of less than 70 msec, and an amplitude/duration ratio of greater than 0.045. Local activation times were also assessed in the 15 patients. This analysis revealed two endocardial breakthrough sites, one on the midinferior septum and a second on the anterior wall near the insertion of the anterior papillary muscle. We therefore have defined normal quantitative characteristics of left ventricular bipolar electrograms and the normal left ventricular activation sequence in the intact normal human left ventricle.
- Copyright © 1984 by American Heart Association