Venous responses to salt loading in hypertensive subjects.
It has been previously suggested that salt loading produces structural changes of the arteries in hypertensive patients who respond to salt loading with a greater rise of blood pressure. This study examined the possibility that salt loading alters venous distensibility in hypertensive patients. Twenty-one patients with essential hypertension were placed on a low-sodium diet (70 meq) for 7 days and then were placed on a high-sodium diet (345 meq) for 7 days. Patients were arbitrarily divided into two groups based on the response of their blood pressure to salt loading: (1) those whose mean blood pressure increased by more than 10% while on the high-salt diet as compared with those on the low-salt diet (salt-responsive patients, n = 8) and (2) those whose mean blood pressure did not increase by more than 10% (salt-nonresponsive patients, n = 13). The venous pressure-volume relationship was determined in the forearm with a water-filled plethysmograph when patients were on the low- and high-salt diet. Venous pressure-volume curves were not different between salt-responsive and salt-nonresponsive patients while on the low-salt diet. High-salt intake shifted the curve toward the pressure axis for salt-responsive patients (p less than .05) but not for salt-nonresponsive patients. Phentolamine, 1 mg administered intravenously for 5 min, did not significantly alter venous pressure-volume curves for either group while on the low- or high-salt diet. These results suggest that salt loading decreased venous distensibility in salt-responsive patients, which resulted from nonadrenergic mechanisms: structural changes of the veins could perhaps be included as one of these mechanisms.
- Copyright © 1984 by American Heart Association