Accuracy of volume determination by two-dimensional echocardiography: defining requirements under controlled conditions in the ejecting canine left ventricle.
The accuracy of two-dimensional echocardiographic left ventricular volume measurement in an isolated heart preparation was tested using Simpson's reconstruction of progressively fewer short-axis cross sections of known location. Echocardiographic images from five ejecting hearts submerged in a special tank were obtained under conditions designed for maximal accuracy of echocardiographic volume assessment. Echocardiographic determinations of 52 volumes at various times throughout the cardiac cycle were compared, by least-squares linear regression, with simultaneous direct-volume measurements by volumetric chamber (range 9.4-44.8 ml). Echocardiographic and direct measurements correlated well for all numbers of cross sections from 1-19 (r = 0.84-0.97); however, variability of direct volume predicted from a given echocardiographic measurement increased nonlinearly as the number of cross sections per heart decreased, and was especially large when three or fewer cross sections were used (SEE = 4.6-7 ml). The accuracy of echocardiographic measures was compared for each number of cross sections per heart, varying from one to 19; accuracy was defined as the mean absolute difference between echocardiographic and direct measurements of volume, ejection fraction, and maximal rate of ejection. The accuracy of echocardiographic measurements was significantly reduced with fewer than four cross sections per heart for ventricular volume, three cross sections for ejection fraction, and five cross sections for maximal rate of ejection. In light of what appears to be required for accurate echocardiographic volume measurement in this controlled, ejecting, noninfarcted, in vitro preparation, additional cross sections may be required in intact animals and human subjects, especially in those with diseases that cause ventricular asymmetry or regional dysfunction.
- Copyright © 1983 by American Heart Association