Origin of the third heart sound. I. Studies in dogs.
We studied 13 anesthetized dogs in which a third heart sound (S3) was repeatedly induced by hypoxemia plus fluid overload. A miniature accelerometer with a mass of about 1.1 g was applied at three levels--intact chest wall over cardiac apex, in the pericardium and on the epicardium--to record motion of the structures under observation as well as sound. Intraventricular pressure and sound were monitored using a Millar catheter. Application of two accelerometers simultaneously over the epicardium permitted observation of the chronologic sequence of ventricular wall dynamics in early diastole. The S3 at each level occurred simultaneously with the sudden onset of reduced acceleration, or negative jerk. These dynamic phenomena were maximal at or near the cardiac apex. We conclude that the event that triggers the S3 is a sudden intrinsic limitation of longitudinal expansion of the left ventricular wall.
- Copyright © 1983 by American Heart Association