Ventricular septal defect after myocardial infarction: diagnosis by two-dimensional contrast echocardiography.
Thirteen patients who had ventricular septal defects (VSDs) after myocardial infarction (MI) underwent two-dimensional echocardiography (2-D echo), with confirmation of the VSD by oximetry. Eight of the patients were male and five were female, ages 51-76 years. Five had anterior and eight inferior MIs. Two-dimensional echocardiography revealed akinesis or dyskinesis of the interventricular septum (IVS) in all 13 patients. In only six could a defect in the IVS be directly visualized. Two-dimensional echocardiographic left ventricular (LV) wall motion abnormalities correlated with ECG and angiographic site of infarction in all patients. Twelve patients had adequate saline contrast studies. Positive LV contrast (microbubbles entering the left ventricle through the VSD) was seen in 11 patients, and negative right ventricular (RV) contrast (washout of the RV bubbles by LV blood crossing the VSD) in five patients; at least one abnormality was present in every patient. The location of the VSD was determined by visualizing a VSD or by the site of the positive LV or negative RV contrast. Oximetry showed VSD shunts of 1.4:1 to 7:1, with no correlation between the degree of negative RV contrast and shunt size. Surgical or pathologic confirmation of VSD was obtained in 12 patients, with agreement of VSD location by 2-D echo in all. Four of the 11 patients who underwent surgical repair died, and two patients died before surgery could be attempted. We conclude tht 2-D echo is a sensitive, rapid and safe technique for diagnosing VSD after MI. Positive LV contrast, with or without negative RV contrast, is more sensitive in the diagnosis and localization of post-MI VSD than direct echocardiographic visualization of the defect.
- Copyright © 1983 by American Heart Association