Prognosis of patients with acute pulmonary edema and normal ejection fraction after acute myocardial infarction.
To assess the prognostic importance of resting left ventricular function in survivors of acute myocardial infarction with pulmonary edema, we retrospectively identified 39 consecutive patients who presented with acute pulmonary edema and myocardial infarction. Sixteen patients had radionuclide ejection fractions 10 +/- 2 days postinfarction of greater than 0.45 (group A, mean 0.55 +/- 0.06), and 23 patients had ejection fractions less than or equal to 0.45 (group B, 0.32 +/- 0.06). There were no significant differences between the two groups for age or sex, but group A patients had a significantly greater incidence of first myocardial infarction predominantly inferior in location. The calculated stroke work index during the acute event was significantly greater in group A than in group B (33.4 +/- 2.4 vs 23.4 +/- 2.0) (p less than 0.05). During a follow-up of 9 +/- 3 months, mortality was not significantly different between the two groups: Four (25%) died in group A and seven (30%) died in group B. In addition, eight patients (50%) in group A were hospitalized for recurrent angina, new myocardial infarction or recurrent pulmonary edema, compared with 11 (48%) in group B (NS). Three deaths in group A were preceded by infarction of the anterior wall of the left ventricle, confirmed at autopsy, and two nonfatal infarctions were anterior by electrocardiography. Four patients in group A had coronary arteriography performed during the follow-up period because of unstable angina, and all had significant (greater than or equal to 70% stenosis) three-vessel disease and two had left main coronary artery disease. Therefore, the predischarge ejection fraction did not predict prognosis for this group of patients. Patients with acute pulmonary edema in the course of myocardial infarction form a high-risk group despite good resting left ventricular function at discharge. They have a significant incidence of recurrent myocardial infarction and death and, because they have good residual left ventricular function, are excellent candidates for surgical intervention.
- Copyright © 1983 by American Heart Association