Epicardial mapping of segmental myocardial function: an echocardiographic method applicable in man.
A technique for epicardial mapping of segmental myocardial function at multiple sites over both right and left ventricles was developed using a high-resolution, 7.5-MHz, short-focus, miniaturized, M-mode echocardiographic transducer worn on the fingertip. Myocardial function was determined from the extent and time course of systolic thickening and diastolic thinning at each site mapped. The technique was characterized in an open-chest canine model of myocardial ischemia. Ischemia was induced by transient or permanent coronary occlusion in 17 dogs. Acute occlusions produced reduced segmental thickening within 10-15 seconds and, often, overt systolic thinning of ischemic myocardium. Rhodamine fluorescence perfusion maps were compared with echocardiographic maps in nine dogs. Segmental thickening was reduced in perfused segments adjacent to, but not involved by, ischemia, as well as ischemic segments. Reproducibility appeared satisfactory for quantitative analysis of grouped data on multiple segments, and qualitative analysis in individual segments. Initial human studies performed during coronary bypass surgery in 11 subjects showed echocardiographic abnormalities in the six patients with ventriculographic abnormalities and in four with normal ventriculograms. Transmural infarctions were akinetic, showing no change in thickness throughout the cardiac cycle. Hypokinetic segments distal to high-grade coronary stenosis were common, although most segments distal to stenosis contracted normally. Reversal of segmental contraction abnormalities by coronary bypass grafting was shown in three subjects, while worsening of function was seen in previously abnormal segments in two and in a previously normal segment in one subject. Epicardial echocardiographic mapping is a practical method for intraoperative assessment of myocardial function during coronary surgery in man that may enhance our understanding of the pathophysiology of coronary disease and the effects of coronary surgery.
- Copyright © 1982 by American Heart Association