Effect of nitroprusside on regional myocardial blood flow in coronary artery disease. Results in 25 patients and comparison with nitroglycerin.
The effect of nitroprusside on regional myocardial specific blood flow (RMBF) was evaluated in 25 patients with the xenon-133 washout technique. Six patients were normal (group 1), six patients had coronary artery disease without collateral vessels (group 2), and thirteen patients had coronary artery disease with collateral vessels (group 3). In group 1, RMBF was unchanged following nitroprusside. RMBF decreased significantly in both group 2 and group 3, including seven patients in group 3 with high-grade collateral vessels. The results were compared to the effect of nitroglycerin in 31 patients previously studied using the same technique. Mean arterial pressure and pressure-rate product were comparably reduced by both drugs. In contrast to the findings with nitroprusside, after sublingual nitroglycerin RMBF decreased markedly in normals and increased in patients with coronary artery disease and high-grade collaterals. The data suggest that nitroprusside may primarily affect resistance vessels within the coronary circulation, as opposed to the effect of nitroglycerin on conductance vessels. Thus, nitroprusside could result in redistribution of blood flow away from ischemic areas and potentially increase ischemic injury in some patients with coronary artery disease.
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