Spectral energy of the first heart sound in acute myocardial ischemia. A correlation with electrocardiographic, hemodynamic, and wall motion abnormalities.
First heart sound (S1) energy spectra in isovolumic systole, hemodynamics, and angiographic left ventricular wall motion (LVWM) at rest and with atrial pacing were compared in 27 patients who underwent diagnostic cardiac catheterization and angiography because of chest pain. Eighteen patients were found to have coronary artery disease (CAD) and nine patients, normal coronary arteries. Eleven of the 18 CAD patients (61%) had a mean reduction in the spectral energy of S1 of 6.5 +/- 1.4 (SEM) dB below control (-52%), during interruption of ischemic stress of rapid atrial pacing, compared to only one of nine patients without CAD (P less than 0.05). Only five CAD patients (28%) had an abnormal rise (greater than or equal to 5 mm) in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) either during or upon interruption of pacing, and six (33%) had ischemic ST-segment depression greater than or equal to mv in the ECG. Similarly two patients free of CAD (22%) had an abnormal increase in LVEDP, and none had ECG evidence of ischemia. Seventeen CAD patients (94%) had segmental LVWM abnormalities at rest or with interruption of pacing, while three patients with normal coronary arteries (33%) had abnormal angiographic LVWM (P less than 0.01). Thus, reduction is S1 spectral energy is a common accompaniment of myocardial ischemia. In the present study, it was more frequently observed than abnormalities in either the ECG or LVEDP, but was not was consistently seen as segmental left ventricular wall motion abnormalities.
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