Cardiac trauma from angiographic injections. A quantitative study.
To relate angiographic injections to potential cardiac trauma, we verified a mathematic theory that allows quantitative definition of the kinetic energy content of contrast jets emanating from the exit holes of angiographic catheters. Cineangiographic recordings of a range of jets of known energy content were obtained in 18 cardiac canine experiments and energy content and dissipation were quantified precisely from center line to jet edge. All contrast jets produced in clinical angiographic practice were turbulent, even those from hand injections into the coronary arteries. Energy content was related to an estimated cardiac wall damage threshold. At energy levels and damage thresholds predicted by the theory and computations, a traumatic spectrum was found by cineradiology and microscopic examination. A unique curve independent of jet Reynolds number was discovered relating the penetration of the contrast jet into the intravascular blood to the potential for cardiac trauma. This curve allowed ready calculation of hydraulic energy dissipation for any clinically used angiographic catheter and the definition of safe operational injection flow rates. Thus potential cardiac trauma can be anticipated and prevented.
- Copyright © 1978 by American Heart Association