Comparative responses to dobutamine and nitroprusside in patients with chronic low output cardiac failure.
The acute hemodynamic effects of dobutamine and nitroprusside were compared in 19 patients with low output cardiac failure. At dosage levels yielding similar increases in cardiac index (12 patients), nitroprusside resulted in significantly lower arterial systolic and wedge pressures and did not increase heart rate suggesting advantages over dobutamine when reduction in myocardial oxygen requirement or pulmonary congestion is a major goal. Systemic arterial mean and diastolic pressures were minimally changed with dobutamine, but fell significantly with nitroprusside suggesting advantages of dobutamine over nitroprusside in patients where hypotension could limit coronary blood flow or perfusion of other vital organs. Reduction in pulmonary arteriolar resistance occurred only with nitroprusside. Arterial hypoxemia developed in three patients during nitroprusside infusion suggesting the possibility of increased right-to-left intrapulmonary shunting resulting from a direct vasodilating effect of nitroprusside on pulmonary arteriole smooth muscle. Although both inotropic and vasodilator drugs can result in hemodynamic improvement when administered to patients with chronic low output cardiac failure, significant differences of potential clinical importance exist between these two modes of therapy.
- Copyright © 1977 by American Heart Association