Axial cineangiography in congenital heart disease. Section I. Concept, technical and anatomic considerations.
Cineangiographic axial techniques were designed to overcome the limitations of conventional angiography in the diagnosis of congenital heart disease. Two basic patient (or equipment) maneuvers are involved; 1) long axis of the heart is aligned perpendicular to the X-ray beam, and 2) rotation of patient results in the heart being radiographically sectioned at 30 degree angles. To accomplish this with fixed vertical and horizontal X-ray tubes, three positions were developed: 1) "hepato-clavicular," "4 chamber," 2) "long axial oblique," 3) "anterior-posterior axial." A fourth, the "sitting-up" projection is discussed. The hepato-clavicular position profiles the posterior ventricular septum and atrial septum, separates the A-V valves, places the four cardiac chambers en face, and clarifies mitral valve-semilunar valve and outflow tract relationships. The long axial oblique profiles the anterior ventricular septum, left ventricular outflow tract, aortic valve-anterior mitral valve leaflet. The sitting-up view visualizes the bifurcation of the pulmonary trunk and separates true pulmonary arteries from systemic collaterals.
- Copyright © 1977 by American Heart Association