The protective effect of hyperosmotic mannitol in myocardial ischemia and necrosis.
Morphologic and hemodynamic changes that occur following coronary occlusion are examined. The effectiveness of hyperosmotic mannitol in lessening the extent of myocardial damage is assessed and mechanisms for its action discussed. Forty and 60 min of coronary vascular occlusion followed by 15 and 45 min of reflow were associated with a persistence of ischemia following reflow of blood, as established by infusions of silastic into the aortic root. Electron microscopic studies demonstrated myocardial and endothelial cell swelling at the end of the reflow period. The process of cell swelling appeared to be initiated during the period of arterial occlusion. This cell swelling was reduced by elevation of serum osmolality by 30-40 mOsm above control with the administration of mannitol during and following occlusion. There was an associated 40-50% reduction of vascular resistance following occlusion if mannitol was administered. In addition, the extent of necrosis, which was widespread in untreated hearts 12 hours after occlusion, was strikingly less in the hearts of dogs which received mannitol. Thus, in ischemic myocardium, elevation of osmolality by mannitol reduces myocardial necrosis, probably through its restoration of normal cell volume.
- Copyright © 1976 by American Heart Association