Permanent pacemaker implantation in infants, children, and adolescents. Long-term follow-up.
Twenty-four patients in the pediatric age range who underwent implantation of a cardiac pacemaker for treatment of complete atrioventricular (A-V) block were followed for an average of five years (range 1-12 years). The etiology of the A-V block was surgical in 13 cases, congenital in nine, and acquired in two. Twenty patients had symptoms of cerebrovascular insufficiency and four had congestive heart failure. To date, 18 of the 24 patients studied are alive and well. Death occurred in six patients, five of whom had complex congenital heart defects, and one of whom had Refsum's disease. Death probably was caused by complete heart block despite pacemaker treatment in four patients, and congestive heart failure in two. In 18 of the 24 children with disabling complete A-V block, pacemaker therapy provided relief of symptoms and prolonged life.
- Copyright © 1976 by American Heart Association