The pathophysiology of idiopathic mitral valve prolapse.
Left ventricular structure, function, and the coronary circulation were studied in a subset of patients with mitral valve leaflet prolapse. This group of 26 patients (21 females, five males, with mean age of 46 years), had the syndrome identified as idiopathic mitral valve prolapse (IMVP), which was characterized by a systolic click-murmur, clinical symptoms that were highly variable in duration and intensity, angiographically-documented mitral prolapse, and no obvious associated systemic or cardiovascular disease. Mitral regurgitation was of moderate degree in four, mild in 14, and absent in eight. The left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volume index was elevated in ten of 25 (40%), the LV mass index was elevated in six of 17 (35%), but the LV anterior wall thickness was increase in only one of 17. Three major patterns of ventricular contraction were identified: 1) normal in seven; 2) abnormal, usually an inferior deformity and/or anterior asynergy, in eight; and 3) hyperkinetic in 11. Normal resting left ventricular function, assessed as an ejection fraction greater than 55%, was present in 17 of 25 (68%). Selective coronary arteriography was essentially normal in all 25 patients studied. An ischemic ECG response was detected during only one of 12 maximal treadmill exercise tests and in none of ten atrial pacing stress tests (AP). Myocardial lactate extraction did not change significantly during AP in six patients. We conclude that cardiomyopathy does not appear to be a primary cause or an important associated component of the IMVP syndrome. Abnormalities of the coronary circulation or of myocardial metabolism were not demonstrated by available methods. A proposed pathophysiological mechanism to explain the clinical and angiographic findings in IMVP is discussed.
- Copyright © 1975 by American Heart Association