Acute myocardial infarction in toxic cardiomyopathy without coronary obstruction.
Confluent left ventricular scar without significant coronary obstruction has been found in alcoholic subjects at autopsy. To evaluate the pathogenesis, 12 patients with chronic alcoholism and severe precordial pain persisting 4-24 hours were observed clinically. Cardiac isoenzymes of lactic dehydrogenase rose in serum. ST segment was elevated in anterior or posterior ECG leads, and abnormal Q waves appeared. Hypertnesion and hypercholesterolemia were present in two (group B) but not in the ten (group A). The latter exhibited no significant obstructive disease, based on coronary angiography in seven survivors and postmortem examination of the remaining three. Clinical evidence, as well as the quantitative assessment of platelets, made arterial thromboembolism an unlikely cause for the symptoms. Neither hemotologic or systemic disease affecting myocardium was present. The morphology of the left ventricle in three autopsies was compared with that of patients with alcoholism who had no cardiac disease, cardiomyopathy, or an asymptomatic scar. All had accumulation of Alcian positive glycoprotein in the interstitium. The patients with cardiac disease also had interstitial fibrosis which was characterized, particularly in the acute infarction group, by concentric periarterial fibrosis. Restriction of coronary vasodilation by this process during periods of high blood flow requirements was postulated as a basis for infarction.
- Copyright © 1975 by American Heart Association