Hemodynamic effects of nitroglycerin in acute myocardial infarction.
Nitroglycerin (NTG) has recently been suggested to decrease myocardial ischemia and enhance cardiac pump function during acute myocardial infarction (AMI). To evaluate the sublingual agnet in this condition, the hemodynamic effects of 0.4 mg NTG administered to 16 supine patients during the first 72 hours of AMI were determined serially 5, 10 to 15, and 20 to 30 minutes post-NTG. Data were evaluated for the entire group, as well as for six patients with normal pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAW) (less than or equal to 12 mm Hg; mean 7) who formed group I and for ten patients with elevated PAW (greater than 12 MM Hg; mean 19) who comprised group II. In the 16 patients, NTG resulted in significant decreases in PAW (14 TO 7 MM Hg; P less than .01), mean systemic arterial pressure (MAP) (95 TO 82 MM Hg; P less than .01), cardiac index (CI) (1.79 TO 1.46 L/min/m-2; P less than .02), stroke index (SI) (24 TO 18 CC/M-2; P less than .01) and stroke work index (SWI) (27 TO 20 GM TIMES M/M-2; P less than .01). These alterations were significant in both subgroups, with the decline in PAW greater (P less than .05), while there was no change in group II. There was no significant change in total peripheral vascular resistance (TPVR) for the entire group or in the two subgroups. This study demonstrates that, regardless of initial left ventricular filling pressure, sublingual NTG given in the acute phase of AMI results in rapid fall in PAW, concomitant with decreases in systemic blood pressure, cardiac output and SWI, without changes in TPVR and with little or no effect on heart rate. Since TPVR was unaltered, the decline in MAP was due to fall in cardiac output. Thus, the principal action of sublingual NTG in AMI appears to be systemic venodilation with consequent reduction of ventricular preload. This effect is translated into decline ofpump output even in patients with high initial filling pressures. Although NTG may rapidly relieve pulmonary congestion and lower myocardial oxygen consumption, use of the agent sublingually is limited in AMI because these salutary effects are accomppanied by potentially deleterious fall in cardiac output and systemic blood pressure.
- Copyright © 1975 by American Heart Association