The A Wave of the Apexcardiogram and Left Ventricular Diastolic Stiffness
This study was made to determine whether the A wave of the apexcardiogram (ACG), a reflection of the late diastolic response of the left ventricle to atrial systole, corresponded in a quantifiable way to left ventricular late diastolic stiffness (LVDS). Using a combined ultrasonic and hemodynamic technique, the slope of the late diastolic left ventricular pressure/diameter relationship (ΔP/ΔD) was calculated in 25 patients and used as a measure of effective LVDS. Most patients had valvular heart disease, all were in sinus rhythm and none had regional abnormalities of contraction. An ACG was recorded in all and the ratio of the size of the A wave to the total amplitude of the ACG wave (A/H) was calculated. When A/H was more than 11%, left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and the presence of a fourth heart sound were the rule in the group of patients studied.
Using A/H as an independent variable, correlation coefficients were obtained for ΔP, ΔD, ΔP/ΔD, left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP), and left ventricular end diastolic volume (LVEDV). Correlation coefficients (r) were: ΔP = 0.68; ΔD = –0.05; ΔP/ΔD = 0.87; LVEDP = 0.73; LVEDV = 0.21. It is concluded that A/H corresponds best to LVDS and is a useful noninvasive measurement of this property of the left ventricle.
- Left ventricular pressure-volume relations
- Left ventricular hypertrophy
- Fourth heart sound
- Hemodynamics of left ventricle
- Received August 27, 1973.
- Accepted November 16, 1973.
- © 1974 American Heart Association, Inc.