Clinical and Hemodynamic Results of Intraaortic Balloon Pumping and Surgery for Cardiogenic Shock
The AVCO balloon pump has been employed in treating 40 patients with cardiogenic shock from acute myocardial infarction (CS-MI). All patients were given a trial of medical therapy with hemodynamic monitoring. The time from the development of shock to institution of intraaortic balloon pumping (IABP) was less than 24 hours in all but nine patients. Prior to IABP the mean hemodynamic values were: cardiac index (CI) 1.7 liters/min/m2; mean arterial pressure (MAP) 66 mm Hg; pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAW) 22 mm Hg. After 24-48 hours of IABP the CI and MAP had increased 0.8 liters/min/m2 and 8 mm Hg, respectively, and the PAW had decreased 4.8 mm Hg. During IABP the shock syndrome was reversed in 31 patients. Four of 25 patients treated with IABP alone survived to be discharged, but two have died from subsequent infarctions. Because of the persistent high mortality, 15 patients judged unable to survive off IABP have undergone emergency surgical procedures with IABP continuing during preoperative angiography and postoperatively. Six were long-term survivors. It is concluded: (1) IABP is a safe, effective means of supporting the circulation in CS-MI; (2) IABP alone will improve survival in some patients; (3) IABP can provide circulatory support during angiography and the perioperative period in patients requiring revascularization for survival; and (4) some patients with CS-MI have myocardial necrosis too extensive to permit survival without permanent circulatory assistance or total cardiac replacement.
- Cardiac index
- Coronary artery bypass grafting
- Pulmonary artery wedge pressure
- Circulatory assistance
- Myocardial infarction
- Received December 14, 1971.
- Accepted March 30, 1972.
- © 1972 American Heart Association, Inc.