Effects of Intraaortic Balloon Counterpulsation on the Severity of Myocardial Ischemic Injury following Acute Coronary Occlusion
Counterpulsation and Myocardial Injury
The effects of intraaortic balloon counterpulsation (IABC) on the magnitude and severity of myocardial ischemic injury were studied in 19 dogs following acute coronary occlusion and in two patients with cardiogenic shock. In the experimental group, epicardial electrocardiograms were taken from 10-14 sites on the anterior surface of the left ventricle following occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery or its apical branch. The average S-T-segment elevation ([see Equation in PDF File]) was used as an index of the magnitude of myocardial ischemic injury. In six dogs, two successive 20-min occlusions were performed, and IABC was started prior to the second occlusion. [see Equation in PDF File] 15 min following occlusion decreased from 3.3 ± 0.9 mv after the control occlusion to 1.4 ± 0.4 mv (P < 0.01) after the occlusion with IABC. In three dogs in which the occlusion was maintained and IABC initiated 30 min later, [see Equation in PDF File] decreased from 1.2 to 0.6 mv. In six dogs in which IABC was started 3 hours after occlusion, it induced a reduction of [see Equation in PDF File] from 4.2 ± 1.1 to 2.8 ± 1.0 mv (P < 0.01). In four dogs, ischemic injury was augmented by isoproterenol infusion (0.25 µg/kg/min), and while continuing the infusion IABC was initiated. It reduced [see Equation in PDF File] from 8.0 ± 1.9 to 5.7 ± 1.8 mv (P < 0.05). Thus, IABC reduced the magnitude and extent of myocardial ischemic injury after experimental coronary occlusion, both when IABC was employed prior to, and 3 hours following, coronary occlusion. IABC was also effective in reducing myocardial ischemic injury which had been increased by isoproterenol infusion. Employing a noninvasive technic, which utilizes 35 electrodes on the thorax, the effects of IABC were examined in two patients with cardiogenic shock associated with acute myocardial infarction. Preliminary observations in these patients confirmed the experimental results indicating that IABC reduced myocardial ischemic injury.
- Epicardial electrocardiograms
- Acute myocardial infarction
- Cardiogenic shock
- S-T-segment elevation
- Mechanical circulatory assistance
- Myocardial oxygen consumption
- Received September 7, 1971.
- Accepted November 5, 1971.
- © 1972 American Heart Association, Inc.