Quantitative Angiocardiography in Ischemic Heart Disease
The Spectrum of Abnormal Left Ventricular Function and the Role of Abnormally Contracting Segments
Appropriate surgical and medical management of the patient with ischemic heart disease depends upon a thorough assessment of the clinical and pathophysiologic derangements in left ventricular function. This study examined the spectrum of abnormalities in ventricular function found in 66 patients with documented coronary artery lesions.
Catheterization and biplane angiocardiography were used to measure end-diastolic and end-systolic volume (EDV, ESV), systolic ejection fraction (SEF), ventricular mass (LVM), end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), peak systolic and end-diastolic stress (PSS, EDS), and stroke work (SW). The pattern of ventricular contraction was assessed for hypokinesis, akinesis, and dyskinesis and graded according to severity.
The SEF, SW, and contractile pattern were sensitive and interrelated indicators of left ventricular contractile dysfunction or fiber shortening. Measurements of ventricular filling or fiber lengthening (EDV, LVEDP, EDS) were related but less sensitive parameters of dysfunction. However, when contractile function was reduced to about one half of normal, there was an associated marked increase in EDV, EDS, and LVEDP.
A wide spectrum of derangements was found ranging from virtually normal function in 18 patients with angina alone to severe dysfunction in 18 patients with myocardial infarction, mitral regurgitation, or heart failure.
Abnormalities in ventricular function were uniformly associated with myocardial infarction. Angina alone was associated with minimal or no ventricular dysfunction. Most patients with mitral regurgitation and all patients with heart failure had severe ventricular dysfunction manifested by an increase in EDV, LVM, and PSS, a marked decrease in SEF and SW, and a severe abnormality in contractile pattern.
- Received February 3, 1971.
- Accepted January 20, 1972.
- © 1972 American Heart Association, Inc.