Factors Influencing Infarct Size Following Experimental Coronary Artery Occlusions
The purpose of this study was the determination of whether hemodynamic and pharmacologic factors influence the extent and severity of myocardial necrosis produced by coronary occlusion. In 48 dogs, 10 to 14 epicardial leads were recorded on the anterior surface of the left ventricle in the distribution and vicinity of the site of occlusion of a branch of the left anterior descending coronary artery. The average S-T segment elevation for each animal was determined at 5-min intervals after occlusion. This elevation was used as an index of the presence and severity of myocardial ischemic injury. The number of sites showing this elevation provided an additional measure of the size of the injured area. Occlusion alone raised the average S-T segment elevation from 0.22 ± 0.04 to 3.32 ± 0.37 mv (SEM). Isoproterenol, ouabain, glucagon, bretylium, and tachycardia given prior to a repeated occlusion increased the severity and extent of ischemic injury, while propranolol decreased it. Elevation of arterial pressure with methoxamine reduced the occlusion-induced S-T segment elevation, and lowering of the mean arterial pressure by hemorrhage had the opposite effect. In 19 additional experiments, propranolol, isoproterenol, and alterations in arterial pressure produced similar alterations in S-T segment elevation when these interventions were applied as long as 3 hr after ligation. In a third group of dogs, myocardial creatine phosphokinase (CPK) activity was determined 24 hr after occlusion at the same sites at which epicardial electrocardiograms were taken. Depression of myocardial CPK activity in injured portions of the left ventricle 24 hr after coronary artery ligation correlated well with S-T segment elevation in the same sites 15 min after ligation. Moreover, isoproterenol increased and propranolol decreased the area of depression of myocardial CPK activity. We conclude that the hemodynamic status and neurohumoral background at the time of occlusion and for up to 3 hr thereafter can alter the extent and severity of myocardial ischemic injury and myocardial necrosis.
- Coronary occlusion
- S-T segment elevation
- Myocardial necrosis
- Epicardial electrocardiogram
- Myocardial oxygen consumption
- Myocardial creatine phosphokinase
- Received July 15, 1970.
- Accepted September 8, 1970.
- © 1971 American Heart Association, Inc.