A Reproducible Model of Cardiogenic Shock in the Dog
An animal model of cardiogenic shock has been developed in the intact unanesthetized dog. Selective embolization of the circumflex coronary artery with 0.2 ml of mercury produces infarction of the posterolateral wall of the left ventricle and a shocklike state in the dog which results in death of the animal in 5 to 48 hr. The syndrome of cardiogenic shock in the animal model simulates closely that observed in man. Systemic blood pressure falls sharply (25 to 30% of control) immediately after embolization, remains low for several hours, then slowly increases toward normal, but never reaches preinfarct levels. The left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) remains within normal limits (5 to 10 mm Hg) during the initial hypotensive state, but increases to values above 10 mm Hg during the period of rising systemic pressures. As left ventricular failure begins to develop as evidenced by the rise in LVEDP, the mean pulmonary artery pressure also rises above control values. The cardiac output falls to 40% of control levels following embolization and never recovers. Peripheral resistance rises to compensate for the reduction of cardiac output and remains above control levels. Electrocardiograms indicate an essentially normal sinus rhythm with short runs (5 to 15 beats) of ventricular tachycardia with A-V dissociation. The hypotensive state does not seem to be related to this arrhythmia. Death of the animal appears to be due to progressive failure of the left ventricular pump to maintain cardiac output and systemic pressures.
- Cardiac output
- Peripheral vascular resistance
- Blood volume
- Cardiogenic shock
- Pulmonary pressure
- Systemic pressure
- © 1969 American Heart Association, Inc.