Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connection with Severe Pulmonary Venous Obstruction
A Clinical Entity
The clinical, physiologic, and anatomic features of a special group of cases of total anomalous, pulmonary venous connection are reviewed.
The occurrence of severe pulmonary venous obstruction in total anomalous pulmonary venous connection produces a characteristic syndrome:
1. Very early onset of dyspnea and heart failure.
2. Considerably more cyanosis than the usual case without obstruction.
3. Typical x-ray showing diffuse hazy lung fields with reticulated appearance without cardiac enlargement.
4. Electrocardiographic evidence of severe right ventricular hypertrophy with a tall R or qR pattern in lead V1 and reversal of the R/S ratio over the precordium.
5. Physiologic findings of practically normal pulmonary flow, right ventricular and pulmonary arterial pressures greater than systemic, and a marked gradient between the pulmonary arterial "wedge" and right atrial pressures.
6. Rapid deterioration and death in the first weeks or months of life.
- © 1962 American Heart Association, Inc.