Myocardial Scar Is Prevalent and Associated With Subclinical Myocardial Dysfunction in Women With Suspected Ischemia But No Obstructive Coronary Artery Disease
From the Women’s Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation–Coronary Vascular Dysfunction Study
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Women with suspected ischemia and no obstructive coronary artery disease (INOCA) have a high prevalence of coronary microvascular dysfunction1 and an elevated rate of major adverse cardiac events, including nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI).2 Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging accurately visualizes and characterizes myocardial scar, which predicts major adverse cardiac events.3 The prevalence, incidence, and scar pattern in women with INOCA is not well characterized. We evaluated LGE in women with suspected INOCA in the WISE-CVD study (Women’s Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation–Coronary Vascular Dysfunction; URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00832702).
Participants in the WISE-CVD study included women with suspected INOCA as previously described.4 The study was approved by the site institutional review committees. All participants gave informed consent. Of the 369 total women enrolled, 341 underwent baseline CMR with LGE; 1 was excluded because of inadequate quality. A subset of 145 underwent invasive coronary reactivity testing.5 The SAQ (Seattle Angina Questionnaire) was completed at baseline and 1-year follow-up. Retrospective review included clinical diagnosis of MI, electrocardiogram, and troponin levels. A subset of 200 participants underwent repeat CMR with LGE at 1-year follow-up; 179 were included with baseline CMR and follow-up within 1 year of study completion.
All scans were performed on a 1.5T scanner (Magnetom Avanto, Siemens Healthcare) and analyzed by the WISE-CMR core lab.4 A total 0.2 mmol/kg gadolinium-based contrast (Optimark, gadoversetamide) in divided doses was used, and LGE images were …