Future Physicians in the Era of Precision Cardiovascular Medicine
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Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are complex and heterogeneous in nature and are caused by multiple genetic, environmental, and behavioral factors. Precision cardiovascular medicine transitions from a one-size-fits-all approach to focusing on the prevention of a single patient’s CVD instead. Moreover, it uses tailored preventive, diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic strategies based on specifics derived from an individual’s genome, clinical features, biomarkers, cardiovascular imaging results, behavioral idiosyncrasies, and environmental factors. The exponential growth of big data analytics in CVD and advances in bioinformatics are revolutionizing cardiovascular clinical care, necessitating the expertise of bioinformatics-literate physicians. To date, the field of oncology has seen advancements with respect to more personalized, target-driven trial designs, because tumor biopsies are easily available to detect genetic mutations. However, precision cardiovascular medicine has only just been introduced; and it has the potential to improve cardiovascular outcomes, quality of patient care, and cost-effectiveness, and reduce hospital admission and mortality rates. This article highlights (1) the insights of precision cardiovascular medicine, (2) the challenges that the next generation of physicians will face, and (3) the way in which the new paradigm might lead to better individualized cardiovascular care.
A Toolbox for Precision Cardiovascular Medicine
The path to adoption of precision cardiovascular medicine requires access to large-scale, well-designed, and standardized electronic health records or precision medicine platforms to connect the omic fields (ie, genomics, metagenomics, metabolomics, and proteomics) with clinical features, biomarkers, human microbiome sequencing, genome editing, cardiovascular imaging, and …