Abstract P116: The Impact of Diet Low in Fruits and Vegetables on Cardiovascular Disease Burden Across 195 Countries in 2015
Introduction: While cardio-protective effects of fruits and vegetables are well-established, the impact of their suboptimal intake on the CVD burden across nations and levels of development has not been evaluated.
Objective: To systematically quantify the burden of CVD attributable to low intake of fruits and low intake of vegetables in 195 countries by age, sex, country, and development status in 2015.
Methods: We obtained data on consumption of fruits and vegetables from nationally or subnationally representative nutrition surveys and data on their national availability from the UN FAO. Etiologic effect sizes of fruits and vegetables on CVD endpoints were obtained from meta- analyses of prospective cohort studies. The optimal level of intakes for each was determined based on the levels associated with lowest risk of mortality in prospective observational studies. A comparative risk assessment analysis was conducted to quantify the proportion of disability- adjusted life years (DALYs) attributable to low intake of each. The variation of this burden was further evaluated across different levels of our newly developed socio-demographic index (SDI).
Results: In 2015, low intake of fruits accounted for 57.3 (95% UI: 37.1- 78.4) million DALYs due to CVD globally (41.5% from IHD and 58.5% from stroke). Low intake of vegetable caused 44.6 (23.6- 68.8) million CVD DALYs (67.3% IHD and 32.7% stroke). The highest burden of CVD attributable to low intake of fruits and vegetables was seen in the middle and low-middle SDI quintiles (17.2 and 14.3% of total DALYs), while the lowest burden for each was seen in high and high-middle SDI quintiles (12.7 and 11.2%). At the country level, the attributable CVD burden ranged from 5.1% of total DALYs (Rwanda) to 23.2% (Bangladesh) for low intake of fruit and from 5.9% (North Korea) to 19.4% (Mongolia) for low intake of vegetable.
Conclusion: Our findings suggest that population inventions to increase consumption of fruits and vegetables at population level could save millions of life years globally. Figure. Age-standardized proportion of disability-adjusted life years attributable to low intake of fruits (A) and vegetables (B) from cardiovascular disease among adults (> 25y) in 2015.
Author Disclosures: P.J. Sur: None. A. Afshin: None.
- © 2017 by American Heart Association, Inc.