Abstract MP070: Saturated Fat Intake by Food Source and Risk of Incident Coronary Heart Disease in Men: the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study
Introduction: The epidemiological evidence of the role of dietary saturated fatty acids (SFA) in the etiology of coronary heart disease (CHD) is inconsistent. However, the proportions of different SFAs in different foods vary, and food sources of SFA (such as dairy and meat products) have had distinct associations with risk of CHD and its risk factors.
Hypothesis: We assessed the hypothesis that SFA from different food sources have distinct associations with CHD risk in men.
Methods: A total of 1981 men from the population-based Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study from eastern Finland, aged 42-60 years and free of CHD at baseline, were included. The consumption of foods was assessed with instructed 4-day food recording by household measures. Dietary intakes were adjusted for total energy using the residuals method. Multivariable-adjusted Cox regression analyses included age, examination year, body mass index, diabetes, hypertension, family history of CHD, smoking, education, leisure-time physical activity, and intakes of alcohol, energy, fiber, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and fruits, berries and vegetables. Fatal and nonfatal CHD events were ascertained from national registries, with no loss to follow-up.
Results: The mean±SD total SFA intake was 49.1±10.4 g/d (18.1 E%). SFA from dairy (16.1±7.7 g/d, excluding butter), butter (16.0±11.1 g/d), plant sources (6.7±5.0 g/d), processed red meat (4.7±4.2 g/d), and unprocessed red meat (3.6±2.7 g/d) contributed most to the total intake. During the mean follow-up of 19.6 years, 458 CHD events occurred. The extreme-quartile hazard ratios (95% CIs) were 1.08 (0.79-1.47, P-trend=0.57) for the highest vs. the lowest quartile of total SFA, 0.99 (0.75-1.32, P-trend=0.93) for total dairy SFA, 1.17 (0.84-1.63, P-trend=0.45) for butter SFA, 0.96 (95% CI 0.70-1.32, P-trend=0.62) for plant SFA, 1.09 (0.82-1.44, P-trend=0.76) for processed red meat SFA, and 1.15 (0.88-1.49, P-trend=0.29) for SFA from unprocessed red meat. Only SFA from fermented dairy (mean±SD intake 4.6±4.6 g/d) was associated with the risk (hazard ratio in the highest vs. the lowest quartile 0.69, 95% CI 0.52-0.91, P-trend=0.02). The associations were not appreciably different with a shorter, 10-y follow-up (199 cases).
Conclusions: Our results suggest an overall non-significant role for SFA intake in the CHD risk and little difference in the associations with SFA from various food sources. Because milk is the raw material in all dairy products, the inverse association with fermented dairy likely reflects other constituents in these products than SFA.
Author Disclosures: J.K. Virtanen: None. T.T. Koskinen: None. H.E.K. Virtanen: None. J. Mursu: None. T. Tuomainen: None. S. Voutilainen: None.
- © 2017 by American Heart Association, Inc.