Abstract 15: The Impact of Suboptimal Diet on Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in the United States
Introduction: Poor dietary habits are an established risk factor to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Yet, the impact of suboptimal diet on CVD mortality in the US has not been systematically evaluated.
Objective: To quantify the effect of suboptimal intake of 11 dietary factors (fruits, vegetables, nuts, whole grains, processed meat, sugar-sweetened beverages, seafood omega-3 fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, fiber, sodium) on CVD mortality by age and sex in the US in 2015.
Methods: Using the Global Burden of Disease study analytic framework, we conducted a comparative risk assessment analysis to estimate the number of CVD deaths attributable to 11 dietary factors in the US. We obtained data on intake of each dietary factor from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Etiologic effect sizes of each dietary factor on CVD endpoints were obtained from the most recent meta-analyses of prospective observational studies. Optimal level of intake was determined based on the level associated with the lowest risk of mortality in cohort studies.
Results: In 2015, suboptimal diet accounted for 222,100 (95% UI: 189,500-252,800) CVD deaths among men and 193,400 (95% UI: 161,100-226,100) CVD deaths among women in the US. Low intake of nuts (100,460 [59,690-148,480] CVD deaths; 11.6% of CVD deaths), low intake of vegetables (99,530 [45,370-161,100]; 11.5%), low intake of whole grains (89,670 [(52,300-132,980], 10.4%) and high intake of sodium (77,260 [22,760-169,690], 9%) were the leading dietary risk factors for CVD mortality in the US (Figure).
Conclusion: Our results highlights the need for implementation for evidence-based policies to promote the intake of cardioprotective dietary factors in particular nuts, vegetables, and whole grains in the US.
Author Disclosures: A. Afshin: None. P. Sur: None.
- © 2017 by American Heart Association, Inc.